Annual Report 2020 College of Business and Economics
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 2
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 3 TaBle of ConTenTs 4 Executive Summary 18 College of Business and Economics (CBE) 2020 @ a Glance 20 Teaching and Learning 26 Research and Innovation 35 DHET-NRF SARChI Chair in Entrepreneurship Education 39 DST/NRF South African Research Chair in Industrial Development 44 DST/NRF/Newton Fund Trilateral Research Chair in Transformative Innovation, the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) and Sustainable Development 47 Johannesburg Business School 51 School of Accounting 58 School of Consumer Intelligence and Information Systems 64 School of Economics 68 School of Management 84 School of Public Management, Governance and Public Policy 90 School of Tourism and Hospitality
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 4 Prof Daneel van Lill, Executive Dean: College of Business and Economics Executive Summary Of particular importance to the CBE is how COVID-19 accelerated the impact of technology on the world of work and reimagining the profile of future graduates flourishing in the field of economics and business. overview The year 2020 provided ample opportunity to deepen knowledge and practice of the art of agility – in short, to respond to the College of Business and Economics (CBE) stakeholders’ changing expectations, while maintaining a solid good governance and operations backbone. The wisdom of Martin Luther King Jr features among the jewels of change leadership, saying: “If you can’t fly, then run. If you can’t run, then walk. If you can’t walk, then crawl. But whatever you do, you have to keep moving forward”. At a global level, COVID-19 forced global economies into reverse gear. The GDP growth of the Russian economy (buffered by energy exports) contracted by some 3%, followed by the USA (-4%), Brazil (-5%), the Eurozone (-5%) and India (almost -7%). China was the only exception (+2,3% GDP growth) as a result of having gripped the pandemic in its early phases. The economy of our beloved country was devastated by a drop of 7%. In comparison, a scenario 5% worse than the impact of the 2008/2009 global financial crisis. South Africa’s high state of inequality fuels the contestation of resources (e.g. taxation, expropriation, corruption, crime), which in turn discourages the investment necessary to accelerate job creation and reduce inequality. Fiscal redistribution through social assistance has redressed the rise in inequality since 1994; however, it is now constrained by a tight fiscal space. GDP per capita is now at a level last seen in 2005.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 5 The UJ College of Business and Economics (CBE) has its purpose cut out: “The CBE develops critical thinkers and problem solvers who address business, economic and societal challenges”, monitored and evaluated against the UJ 2025 Strategic Plan. Of particular importance to the CBE is how COVID-19 accelerated the impact of technology on the world of work. The past two years saw the CBE community investing much thought into reimagining the profile of future graduates, flourishing in the field of economics and business. We focused on the intertwined impact of technology advances and COVID-19 on various economic sectors. For example, the disruption of health services, personal care, on-site customer service (e.g. retail, banks, restaurants), global tourism (airlines, airports, business, and leisure travel), outdoor production and maintenance (a sector that dropped by about 20%), and rail and road freight operations (affected by restricted production and movement of goods and services – notably the drop in global demand for commodities). Insight was gained into the behavioural shifts observed in e-commerce and digital transacting. Moreover, as seen across universities globally, teaching, learning, research, academic governance, and operations in the CBE simply had to shift in a matter of weeks from campus-based to mostly email@example.com. A journey marked by a high intensity of unlearning, learning and relearning. Little did we know to what extent human interaction would become moderated. Being confined to a restricted living environment soon emphasised the physical and psychological wellbeing of the CBE community. We soon gained insight into the taxing nature of multitasking the pedagogy of care to both students and loved ones. Later, we were deeply affected as job losses and the passing of those close to us started to raise their ugly head. Regardless of these challenges, the CBE functioned at an unimaginable pace in 2020. The 2020 Annual Report testifies to much resilience and innovation, yielding improvement in 18 key performance indicators of at least 5% when compared to 2019 (Table I). As expected, we did not succeed in research, master’s, and doctoral output, where we observed a drop of at least 5%. These challenges are receiving much attention by the deanery.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 6 Table i CBe 2020 strengths and weaknesses strengths (5% better than in 2019) weaknesses (5% weaker than 2019) Programme Qualification Mix 1. The number of CBE programmes have been reduced from 107 to 97 by creating new-generation programmes, updating programmes in high demand, improving articulation opportunities into postgraduate programmes, and phasing out irrelevant programmes for implementation in 2021. 2. Three of five CBE fully online undergraduate programmes were implemented in 2020. 3. All of the 2 231 CBE modules have now transitioned to blended learning as the mode of delivery 4. Some 18 new continuous education programmes (CEPs) were implemented (+16%) of which 15 focused on the 4IR. 5. 55 CEPs now present a strong technoenablement and empowerment focus as a result of either being designed or redesigned. 1. Master’s degree output has dropped from a peak of 224 in 2019 (as a result of urging longenrolled master’s students to complete their studies), to 180 (-20%). 2. Doctoral degree output has dropped from a peak of 37 in 2019 to 33 in 2020 (83% of target). The number of black doctorands has dropped to a peak of 16 in 2019 to 12 in 2020(71% of target). Consequently, the percentage of doctorands completing in four years dropped by 10% from 51% in 2019 to 41% in 2020. Closer examination revealed the impact of the pandemic on professional and personal demands since the majority of our master’s and doctoral cohorts are in full-time senior management and leadership public and private sector positions. 3. Even though the number of publications exceeded 2019, the changing rules of DHET accreditation for subsidy did not count in our favour. student Progress 6. The number of NSFAS grant holders has grown from 4 600 in 2019 to 5 473 (in 2020, +18%) to 7 955 (2021, +45%). Since 2019, an increase of 3 355 grant holders (+73%), that is 52% of the CBE undergraduate portfolio being NSFAS supported. 7. Module success rates have increased to 90% (+5%) as a result of improved communication with and care for students, and an increase of 25% in the number of senior tutors, tutors and mentors appointed to enhance online support. 8. Since 2019, to date the undergraduate graduation rate has increased to 28% (+2%). enrolment 9. Total international enrolment increased to 1 440 students in 2020 (+2%). 10. Postgraduate output below master’s increased to 1 181 (+6%)). 11. CEP enrolment has remained stable at 6 604 students showing about 1% growth, when compared to at least 15% growth in previous years. COVID-19 has clearly had an impact on investment in corporate talent development. 12. On the other end, enrolment in nonsubsidised online programmes has grown from 1 308 students in 2019 to 2 463 students in 2020 (88% growth). 13. In 2020, CBE total undergraduate enrolment (subsidised and non-subsidised) has grown by 3% to 23 875 students.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 7 strengths (5% better than in 2019) weaknesses (5% weaker than 2019) research output and impact 14. Research output units (DHET accredited) increased from 440 in 2019 to 454 in 2020 (+3%). research Capacity Building 15. The number of NRF-rated researchers has grown from 19 to 27 (+42%). 16. External research funding has increased to R24 million (+126%). 17. The number of visiting scholars has grown to 272 (+29%) Talent management 18. The number of professors has increased through promotions and new appointments to 78 (+23%). 19. The number of senior lecturers has increased through promotions and new appointments to 120 (+5%). 20. The number of academic staff holding doctorates has increased from 114 to 121 (+8%). 21. From 2017 to 2020, the percentage of designated academic staff remained consistent at 46% while international academic staff have increased from 12% to 17%. Non-designated groups reduced from 42% to 37 %. fiTness for PurPose The College staff rose to the challenges faced during 2020 and focussed on how these challenges provided opportunities for rethinking traditional approaches to our core business of generating knowledge and educating our students for the post-COVID world. The CBE 2020 Annual Report reflects a counter-disruptive strategy built on the strengths of its School of Accounting, the Johannesburg Business School (JBS), the School of Consumer Intelligence and Information Systems, the School of Economics, the School of Management, the School of Public Management, Governance and Public Policy, the School of Tourism and Hospitality, and an agile academic governance force directed by the deanery.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 8 An exciting new development is that the JBS has gained the status of a UJ faculty. This strategic move repositions and differentiates the JBS globally in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), with redesigned modules and learning material and an exciting MBA programme, which is offered in both contact and online modes. In a major win for students and faculty, UJ has appointed Dr Randall Carolissen as Dean of the JBS. A former group executive at the South African Revenue Services (SARS) and administrator of the National Student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS), he assumes his new position on 1 March 2021. A further exciting development is that the four departments previously residing in the JBS have now been positioned under the newly established School of Management (SOM). UJ has appointed Prof Adri Drotskie as Director: SOM. She brings to UJ an avalanche of experience, following her successful stints at Henley Business School, gaining international exposure as MBA Director and Head of Research and Faculty Development. As an academic, she specialises in Strategy, International Business and Strategic Marketing. She also has years of experience in the corporate world in management and leadership in the areas of Strategy and Marketing. She assumed duty on 1 October 2020. The CBE community progresses by using technology to educate more people than ever before in business and economics. We impact by generating knowledge, adding value to learning, and teaching how to be better informed, to be healthier, to be safer, to behave better, to connect, and to learn faster. In so doing, we ensure that the ‘black box’, accelerated by COVID-19, serves as an enabler in the emerging new world of work. The past year saw the CBE substantially extending its global scholarly network and concentrating investments into Greenfield projects capable of expanding the economy and creating more jobs for unemployed South Africans, of whom a staggering 60% are unemployed youths. We integrate the 4IR into our teaching, learning and research agenda to equip our graduates with a working knowledge of the future of manufacturing, geopolitics, and economic trade wars, as well as the ability to navigate systems for growth spots that can assist with growing national wealth. CBe sTaff Profile There have been significant shifts in the staff profile during 2020, in terms of staff gaining their doctorate and through promotions. With regard to doctorates, there has been steady progress since 2017, when 98 staff held a doctorate; the total had moved to 121 in 2019 and in this year reached a very pleasing 139, with 18 more staff graduating. Similarly, there was a very pleasing total of 18 staff promoted, across the various ranks. Three colleagues were promoted to full professor, Profs Beatrice Simo-Kenge, Nicolas Ngepah, and Tembi Tichaawa. Profs Marius Wait, Marius Venter, Noleen Pisa, and Diane Abrahams were all promoted to associate professor. And finally, the following colleagues were promoted to senior lecturer: Dr Bulelwa Maphela, Dr Magda Wilson, Dr Nazeer Joseph, Dr Cashandra Mara, Dr Nelesh Dhanpat, Dr Wikus Erasmus, Dr Chioma Okoro, Dr Jeremy Mitonga-Monga, Dr Letiwe Nzama, Dr Roelien Brink, and Dr Chuma Diniso. The College’s commitment to the development of younger staff, not least through their participation in UJ’s Accelerated Academic Mentoring Programme (with approximately 70 CEBE participants), is having considerable impact. Dr Randall Carolissen Prof Adri Drotskie
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 9 Prof Beatrice Simo Kenge Prof Marius Venter Dr Bulelwa Maphela Dr Nazeer Joseph Dr Lethiwe Nzama Prof Tembi Tichaawa Prof Roelien Brink Dr Nelesh Dhanpat Dr Jeremy Mitonga Monga Prof Nicholas Ngepah Prof Noleen Pisa Dr Magda Wilson Dr Cashandra Mara Dr Chuma-Diniso Prof Marius Wait Prof Diane Abrahams Dr Lodewikus Erasmus Dr Chioma Okoro There have been significant shifts in the staff profile during 2020, in terms of staff gaining their doctorate and through promotions.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 10 sTaff aCComPlishmenTs The accomplishments of CBE staff on the international and national stage are too numerous to mention in detail. Staff have been elected to the boards of learned societies, have been appointed as visiting professors at global universities, have given keynote presentations at international conferences, have secured notable international conferences for South Africa, and have hosted conferences that brought leading experts together for dialogue and networking. • Prof Linda de Beer was appointed as Chair: Public Interest Oversight Board. • The Cracow University of Economics (Poland) bestowed on Prof Cecile Nieuwenhuizen (DHET-NRF SARChI Chair in Entrepreneurship Education), an Honorary Doctorate in recognition of her contribution to entrepreneurship education in Poland. • Dr Nelesh Dhanpat was appointed as Assistant Editor of the South African Journal for Human Resource Management. • Dr Thando Vilakazi (Director: CCRED) secured a DTI grant of R15 million (2020 to 2023). • Prof Mercy Mpinganjira secured an agreement with W&R SETA to the value of R7.86 million (2020 to 2023) to establish a Gautengbased W&R SETA Wholesale & Retail Chair in the School of Consumer Intelligence and Information Systems. • Dr Ebes Esho has received the Academy of Management International Management Division Best Reviewer Award. The accolade is based on numerous reviews for the renowned international Association of Management Sciences. • President Cyril Ramaphosa has appointed Dr Sydney Mufamadi (Director: CBE Centre for Public Policy and African Studies, and Minister in the cabinets of Presidents Nelson Mandela and Thabo Mbeki) and Baleka Mbete (former Deputy President and speaker of the National Assembly) as his Special Envoys to Zimbabwe, following difficulties that the Republic of Zimbabwe experienced. • Prof Fiona Tregenna’s SARChI Chair was renewed following a rigorous peer review by the NRF. Prof Linda de Beer Dr Nelesh Dhanpat Prof Mercy Mpinganjira Prof Cecile Nieuwenhuizen Dr Thando Vilakasi Dr Ebes Esho
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 11 • Dr Stella Bvuma (HOD: Applied Information Systems) was appointed as Non-Executive Director on the board of the Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA). • Prof Diane Abrahams (Director: STH) was appointed to the Minister of Tourism’s advisory panel for the review of the White Paper on Tourism. • Ms Boniswa Madikizela was selected as one of the 28 top-performing women leaders to form part of the International Women’s Forum (IWF) 2020-2021 Fellows Class. • Prof Mornay Roberts-Lombard was elected Board Member to the Chartered Institute of Customer Management. aCademiC governanCe The College would not function without its 127 committed, hardworking professional administrators and 41 operational staff members who take a broad view of the University, the College, and our students’ best interests. The CBE administration renders a one-stop service to some 27 000 registered students on three different campuses, ranging from certificate up to doctorate level, which represent 43% of the University’s student population. This foremost responsibility is divided among Prof Sivan Chetty (Vice-Dean: Teaching and Learning), Prof Kelvin Bwalya (Vice-Dean: Research and Internationalisation), Prof Marita Pietersen (Head: CBE Quality Assurance), Ms Maria Motaung and Ms Elmarie Vermeulen (the two CBE Heads of College Administration), Ms Delia Arends (Head: Dean’s Administration), and Ms Yasmiena Sallie-Joyce (Executive Secretary to the Dean). Highlights and key trends from the College’s activities during 2020 are summarised in Table II. Dr Sydney-Mufamadi Prof Fiona Tregenna Boniswa Madikizela Baleka Mbete Dr Stella Bvuma Prof Mornay Roberts-Lombard Prof Diane Abrahams
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 12 uJ strategic objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2020, compared to 2019 Year- on-year trend since 2017 SO1 (Excellence in Research and Innovation) and SO5 (National and Global Reputation management) Postgraduate programme qualification mix Number of PG Diploma programmes 2 3 3 4 4 1 (33%) 1 Number of honours programmes 24 22 22 22 22 0 -1 Number of master’s programmes 51 46 45 45 45 0 -2 Number of doctorate programmes 30 28 26 26 26 0 -1 enrolment Subsidised enrolment - Postgraduate Diploma (2021 Target = 730) 713 926 770 644 754 (103%) -126 (-16%) -36 Subsidised enrolment - Honours (2021 Target = 1 031) 1 259 1 070 1 103 1 179 1308 (101%) 76 (7%) -21 Subsidised enrolment - Postgraduate Diploma and Honours (2021 Target = 2 031) 1 972 1 996 1 873 1 823 2062 (102%) -50 (-3%) -57 Subsidised enrolment - Masters (2021 Target = 1 019) 735 731 753 833 1019 (100%) 80 (11%) 32 Subsidised enrolment - Doctorate (2021 Target = 268) 169 201 230 260 258 (96%) 30 (13%) 30 Subsidised enrolment - Total postgraduate (2021 Target = 3 318) 2 876 2 928 2 856 2 916 3339 (101%) 60 (2%) 5 International enrolment - Undergraduate (2021 Target = 1 061) 906 1 046 1 062 1 061 998 (94%) -1 (%) 48 International enrolment - Postgraduate (2021 Target = 333) 236 358 355 379 370 (111%) 24 (7%) 43 International enrolment - Total 1 142 1 404 1 417 1 440 1368 (98%) 23 (2%) 91 graduates Postgraduate Output - Honours (2020 Target = 795) 830 706 714 850 (107%) 136 (19%) -58 Postgraduate Output - Postgraduate Diploma (2020 Target = 333) 370 460 395 331 (99%) -64 (-16%) 13 Postgraduate Output - HEQF Level 8 (2020 Target = 1 128) 1 200 1 166 1 109 1181 (105%) 72 (6%) -46 Postgraduate Output - Master’s (2020 Target = 190) 163 160 224 190 (100%) -34 (-15%) 31 Postgraduate Output - Doctorates (2020 Target = 40) 23 31 37 33 (83%) -4 (-11%) 7 Postgraduate Output - SA Black doctorands (2020 Target = 17) 8 8 16 12 (71%) -4 (-25%) 4 Postgraduate Output - Total 1 386 1 357 1 370 1404 (103%) 34 (2%) -8 Table ii 2020 highlights and key trends from the College
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 13 uJ strategic objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2020, compared to 2019 Year- on-year trend since 2017 % Honours students completing in one year 57% 64% 65% 69% 4% 4% % M-students completing in two years 28% 18% 23% 23% 0% -1% % D-students of completing four years 30% 55% 51% 41% -10% 3% research output and capacity development Research Output Units (DHET Accredited) (Target for 2021 = 441) 285 286 440 454 14 (3%) 66 Number of NRF rated researchers 14 19 19 27 8 (42%) 4 External research funding - National (ZAR million) 6,62 8,83 8,71 16,52 8 (90%) 2,96 External research funding - International (ZAR million) 1,55 1,94 2,08 7,88 6 (279%) 1,91 External research funding - Total (ZAR million) 8,17 10,77 10,79 24,40 14 (126%) 4,87 Visiting Scholars - Number of PDRFs 12 27 38 44 6 (16%) 11 Visiting Scholars - Number of Distinguished Visiting Professors 5 7 9 11 2 (22%) 2 Visiting Scholars - Number of Visiting Professors 5 8 11 16 5 (45%) 4 Visiting Scholars - Number of Visiting Associate Professors 4 9 11 12 1 (9%) 3 Visiting Scholars - Number of Professors of Practice 2 8 15 17 2 (13%) 5 Visiting Scholars - Number of Associate Professors of Practice 4 4 4 4 (%) 0 Visiting Scholars - Number of Senior Fellows / Senior Research Associates 41 52 63 79 16 (25%) 13 Visiting Scholars - Number of Fellows / Research Associates 43 56 71 89 18 (25%) 15 Visiting Scholars - Total 116 171 222 272 50 (23%) 52 SO2 (Excellence in Teaching and Learning), SO3 (An International Profile for Global Excellence and Stature) and SO4 (An Enriching Student-Friendly Learning and Living Experience) Undergraduate Programme Qualification Mix, collaboration and delivery mode Number of undergraduate subsidised programmes 65 59 58 52 -6 (-10%) -4 Number of Continuing Education Programmes (cumulative) - Whole Programmes 10 10 13 13 13 0 1 Number of Continuing Education Programmes (cumulative) - Bridging Programmes 6 7 7 7 8 0 0
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 14 uJ strategic objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2020, compared to 2019 Year- on-year trend since 2017 Number of Continuing Education Programmes (cumulative) - Short Learning Programmes 88 91 96 114 115 18 (19%) 8 Number of Continuing Education Programmes (cumulative) - Total 104 108 116 134 134 18 (16%) 10 Number of Continuing Education Programmes on 4IR (cumulative) 4 7 18 33 35 15 (83%) 10 Number of joint, interdisciplinary programmes with international institutions (cumulative) 9 10 12 13 1 (8%) 1 Number of academic initiatives advancing 4IR (cumulative) 4 11 14 18 4 (29%) 5 Number of full-online programmes 2 6 6 9 3 (50%) 2 Number of blended learning modules offered in contact programmes 772 1088 1364 2231 867 (64%) 465 Number of UG completion of the module “African Insights” 2308 2547 2233 349 -1884 (-84%) -619 Number of UG completion of the module “AI in 4IR” 2164 Number of UG completion of either of the enrichment modules 2308 2547 2233 2513 280 (13%) 30 enrolment Subsidised enrolment - Undergraduate diplomas (2021 Target = 6 367) 6 773 6 399 6 109 6 065 6251 (98%) -44 (-1%) -241 Subsidised enrolment - Undergraduate degrees (2021 Target = 9 035) 10 088 9 756 9 205 8 743 8894 (98%) -462 (-5%) -459 Subsidised enrolment - Undergraduate total (2021 Target = 15 412) 16 861 16 155 15 314 14 808 15259 (99%) -506 (-3%) -700 FTEs (Students) 14 820 14 333 13 872 13 832 14763 -40 (%) -343 FTEs (Academic Staff) 613 637 667 645 647 -22 (-3%) 13 Ration: FTEs (Students) per FTEs (Staff members) 24 23 21 21 23 1 (3%) -1 Enrolment in Continuing Education Programmes (2021 Target = 7 000) 6 041 6 122 6 547 6 604 6898 (99%) 57 (1%) 211 Enrolment in online programmes - AdvDip (Financial Markets) 0 54 599 890 328 291 (49%) 322 Enrolment in online programmes - AdvDip (Logistics) 0 0 151 388 159 237 (157%) 132 Enrolment in online programmes - AdvDip (People Performance Management) 0 0 57 231 76 174 (305%) 75 Enrolment in online programmes - AdvDip (Transportation Management) 0 0 177 398 163 221 (125%) 137 Enrolment in online programmes - BCom (Accountancy) 127
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 15 uJ strategic objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2020, compared to 2019 Year- on-year trend since 2017 Enrolment in online programmes - Bachelor (Human Resource Management) 0 21 324 556 228 232 (72%) 197 Total enrolment in CBE online programmes (2021 enrolment end Feb 2021) 0 75 1 308 2 463 1 081 1155 (88%) 862 Total enrolment in CBE online programmes as % of total undergraduate subsidised enrolment 0% 0% 9% 17% 7% 8% 6% CBE overall undergraduate enrolment 22 902 22 352 23 169 23 875 23 238 706 (3%) 374 CBE overall under- and postgraduate enrolment 25 778 25 280 26 025 26 791 26 577 766 (3%) 378 Student Profile % of first-years with an APS ≥ 35 (without Life Orientation) (2020 Target = 15%) 15,4% 16,0% 15,0% 16% (1%) 22% (6%) 0,5% 0 % of first-years from quintile 1 and 2 schools (under-resourced) 23,1% 24,6% 26,5% 27,8% 26% (-2%) 1,3% 2% % of first-years from quintile 5 schools (well-resourced) 38,4% 35,1% 34,2% 34,5% 36% (1%) 0,3% -1% Number of NSFAS bursary holders 2 089 4 588 4 600 5 473 7955 (45%) 873 (19%) 1 016 student Progress UG module success rates (2020 Target = 87%) 84,9% 84,7% 85,2% 90,1% 4,9% 2% UG dropout rate by end Year 1 (2020 Target = 11,5%) 12,8% 11,7% 11,0% 11,8% 0,8% 0% Graduate Output - Diplomas and degrees 3865 4030 3991 4184 193 (5%) 92 Graduate Output - PG diplomas, honours, master’s and doctorate 1 386 1 357 1 370 1404 (103%) 28 (102%) -8 Graduate Output - Total 5 251 5 387 5 361 5 546 185 (3%) 86 Undergraduate graduation rate (%) 22,9% 25,0% 26,1% 28,3% 2,2% 2% Postgraduate graduation rate (%) 45,1% 46,6% 48,5% 47,8% -0,7% 1% % BTech and Advanced Diploma students graduating in minimum time 47,9% 59,2% 58,7% 62,5% 3,8% 4% % 3-year Diploma students graduating in minimum time 34,8% 32,7% 36,1% 41,5% 5,4% 2% % 3-year Degree students graduating in minimum time 41,3% 38,3% 42,8% 45,6% 2,8% 2% Number of senior tutors, tutors and mentors 245 273 340 424 84 (25%) 60
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 16 uJ strategic objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2020, compared to 2019 Year- on-year trend since 2017 SO6 (Fitness for Global Excellence and Stature) Student enrolment fulltime equivalents (FTEs) 14816 14331 13872 13810 13698 -62 (-2%) -348 Staff fulltime equivalents (FTEs) 315 321 328 334 334 6 (2%) 6 Student FTEs / Staff FTEs (Ideal = 1:28) 47 45 42 41 41 -1 (-2%) -2 Student FTEs / ROUs (Ideal = 1:00) 0,90 0,89 1,34 1,36 (1%) 0,18 Full-time and Fixed-term Staff members Academic staff members 329 350 369 375 6 (2%) 16 - Professors 29 27 28 34 6 (21%) 2 - Associate Professors 30 35 44 44 (%) 5 - Black Professors and Asscociate Professors 5 6 8 11 3 (38%) 2 - Senior Lecturers 110 115 114 120 6 (5%) 3 - Lecturers 145 146 149 140 -9 (-6%) -1 - Assistant Lecturers 10 21 26 26 (%) 5 Administrators 94 125 125 127 2 (2%) 10 Operations 51 52 43 41 -2 (-5%) -4
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 17 looKing forward Overall, the CBE has progressed well in 2020. Underpinning the mindset of all the staff in the College is the theme of connectedness, of productive and active interdisciplinary connections within the College, as well as a vast set of continental and international connections, to ensure that globally, the UJ College of Business and Economics is top of mind and top of class. The CBE leader team is confident that the CBE, with the collaboration of all role-players across the private and public sectors, as well as civil society, will help to turn business into a powerful engine that drives our economy forward. We express our deep appreciation for individual and collective commitment to our future impact. uJ strategic objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2020, compared to 2019 Year- on-year trend since 2017 Staff Talent Profile Women academics (2020 Target = 50%) 51% 50% 52% 50% -2% 0% Professoriate 17% 16% 20% 21% 1% 1% Women in the professoriate 5% 6% 8% 9% 1% 1% Academics (designated) 45% 46% 46% 46% 0% 0% Academics (non-designated) 42% 40% 38% 38% 0% -1% Academics (international) 12% 14% 16% 17% 1% 2% Academics with a doctorate (n) 98 114 121 139 18 (15%) 13 Academics with a doctorate (%) 30% 33% 33% 37% 4% 2% Academics with a master’s 170 150 150 132 -18 (-12%) -11 Academics with a masters (%) 52% 43% 41% 35% -5% -5% Academics who are CAs 66 66 66 67 1 (2%) 0 Academics who are CAs (%) 20,1% 18,9% 17,9% 17,9% 0,0% -1%
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 18 The CBE develops critical thinkers and problem solvers who address business, economic and societal challenges. suBsidised ug headCounT: 14 808 non-suBsidised ug headCounT: 7987 honours and PgdiP headCounT: 1 823 masTer’s headCounT: 833 doCToral CandidaTes: 260 inTernaTional headCounT: 1 440 Magnitude Enrolment Profile 4 184 undergraduaTes 1 404 PosTgraduaTes 190 masTer’s graduaTes 33 doCToral graduaTes 12 sa BlaCK doCTorandi 92% iTC Pass raTe 90,1% module suCCess raTe 11,8% firsT-Year droPouT raTe 5% ug degrees & diPlomas ouTPuT inCrease 28% ug graduaTion raTe 42% UG 3-yR dIPLOMA MINIMUM TIME cOMPLETION RATE 46% UG 3-yR dEGREE MINIMUM TIME cOMPLETION RATE 2% Pg ouTPuT inCrease 1% Pg graduaTion raTe deCline Graduates CBE Coordinates and Agility: Talented staff and students, cohesive and inspirational spirit, substantial reserve funds, stakeholder responsiveness and strong governance. Teaching and Learning Excellence: Streamline PQM and curricula, integrate 4IR, and improve student success. Student Progress Resilient, future-fit graduates as well as engaged and supportive alumni as CBE brand ambassadors. College of Business and Economics (CBE) 2020 @ a Glance 26 800 sTudenTs 162 QualifiCaTions 5 473 nsfas BursarY holders 2 231 modules 7 sChools 543 sTaff memBers 5 546 graduaTes Per Year
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 19 Staff 127 Professional suPPorT 41 oPeraTional 375 aCademe 46% designaTed aCademe 38% non-designaTed aCademe 17% inTernaTional aCademe 37% holds a doCToraTe 35% holds a masTer’s 18% are CharTeredaCCounTanTs Significant research contributes to important development issues, apply fit for purpose research, and equip people for future challenges. 454 CrediTs suBmiTTed 80% CrediTs from arTiCles 6% CrediTs from ConferenCe ProCeedings 14% CrediTs from BooKs and ChaPTers Research Output DHET Credits 44 PosTdoCToral researCh fellows 11 disTinguished visiTing Professors 28 visiTing Professors / assoCiaTe Professors 21 Professors / assoCiaTe Professors of PraCTiCe 168 senior fellows / fellows & senior researCh assoCiaTes / researCh assoCiaTes 27 nrf-raTed researChers 3 sarChi Chairs 8 researCh CenTres 1 researCh laBoraTorY 1 researCh insTiTuTe Research Profile Tourism & hosPiTaliTY 1sT in afriCa and 18Th gloBallY marKeTing managemenT 1sT in afriCa organisaTional PsYChologY 1sT in souTh afriCa Business & managemenT sTudies 3Rd IN AFRIcA eConomiCs & eConomeTriCs 4Th in afriCa aCCounTing & finanCe 4Th in afriCa Global Reputation
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 20 Teaching and Learning The resilience and agility of the CBE, along with the University, was tested as it negotiated the twists, turns and bumps caused by the pandemic and concomitant lockdown measures. Prof Sivan Chetty Prof Marita Pietersen CBE teaching and learning is overseen by Prof Sivan Chetty, Vice-Dean: Teaching and Learning, and supported by Prof Marita Pietersen, CBE Head: Quality Assurance. The year 2020 was undoubtedly an extraordinary period for teaching and learning in the College. Education and the world of work experienced the disruptive effects of the pandemic, as it ravaged South Africa and the rest of the world. While 2020 may have been challenging and stressful, the disruptive effects of the pandemic and accompanying lockdown restrictions served as a catalyst for innovation and advancement in the teaching and learning environment. Thus, pervading virtually the entire spectrum of teaching and learning. The resilience and agility of the CBE, along with the University, was tested as it negotiated the twists, turns and bumps caused by the pandemic and concomitant lockdown measures. Clearly, the move to online learning required some adjustments in terms of pedagogies – with online learning, appropriately developed, typically being more able to cater for student-centred learning, such as collaborative learning, constructivism, and inquirybased learning.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 21 At College level, the deanery, directors of school and heads of departments worked at an extraordinary level and pace to ensure successful completion of the academic year. Governance of the changed approaches to course delivery was well managed. Teaching, learning, and assessment (TLA) plans developed at College level guided schools and departments in the development of their own plans. Monitoring of progress took the form of periodic reports to the deanery. Maintaining the integrity of assessment in the online environment was obviously crucial. At an initial College meeting, a contingency plan involving a College-wide shift to continuous assessment was set up, which gradually evolved into detailed module assessment plans. A range of models of continuous assessment emerged, both with and without a final assessment opportunity, as best appropriate to individual disciplines. Student performance showed that our approaches had indeed been successful. Module success rates increased overall to 90%, an increase of 5% against performance in 2019. The student dropout rate had increased from 11% in 2019 to 11,8% in 2020 but was well in line with the five-year trend. The academic staff in the College rose to the occasion and staff who were not yet familiar with online learning were aided by the various institutional support structures such as CAT, ICS, ADS, and the Academic Planning Division. Apart from the institutional development and provision of online resources to support TLA, academic staff members were motivated to find their own creative solutions to ensuring adequate student participation in the learning process. Academic staff primarily used Blackboard. Hence, there was a broad shift from using Blackboard simply as a communication and repository system, to one of active engagement with students in the learning process. Most staff adopted asynchronous modes of presentation, in the form of video recordings, audio recordings and written materials uploaded to Blackboard. This more student-centred approach allows students to better accommodate their engagement with learning materials within their full-time schedules. Academic staff also made use of other platforms to engage with students, such as Zoom, MS Teams, WhatsApp and Google Classroom. Monitoring of progress took the form of periodic reports to the deanery and other institutional committees. Blackboard Module Activity Reports played an important role in monitoring student activity. These reports often tended to indicate lower student activity than expected but this was because students would download all the material and work through them offline at their own time. However, student activity picked up significantly during times of assessments, which had to be conducted through Blackboard. In order to gain an understanding of students’ perceptions and expectations relating to online teaching and learning, the College conducted a student survey in May 2020 with 5 861 respondents (29% response rate, 50% first years, 40% senior undergraduates, 10% postgraduates, 46% NSFAS grant holders, and 24% supported by their families). Of interest was that students connected to UJ learning and teaching by phone (63%) and/or laptop (32%) with 61% reliant on UJ-sponsored data. About 18% were always connected to the internet, whereas 85% were able to connect over 12 hours. Students mostly connected with UJ between midday and midnight (62%), as many students had to attend to chores in the morning. Some 65% of respondents were negatively affected by study conditions, among whom 38% severely, drawing attention to the relevance of UJ residences as an enabling study environment. Despite several challenges, 78% of students considered their lecturers as ‘very good’ in online support during the lockdown. There remained, however, a significant number of students who indicated concerns in certain key areas which provided important insights into their sense of well-being, study conditions, access to devices etc. which the College then sought to address during the second half of the year. Residences created a platform for access to success and security, serving as a 69% strategically relevant driver in longer-term UJ CBE success. The second driver (36% relevant) was the attitude of lecturers towards their students conveyed in email and WhatsApp messaging. Finally, students described their experience of a great university in five themes. An outstanding university was depicted as 1) student-orientated and caring; 2) the academic project is facilitated, researched, taught, and managed by highly competent staff; 3) sensitive to specific student needs as opposed to one size fits all; 4) provides a techno-enabled, techno-empowered, and safe campus environment (e.g. residences); and finally, 5) charges reasonable tuition fees. Although a number of modules had already introduced blended learning in previous years, the sudden requirement in 2020 to move to online learning indeed gave great impetus to the need to ensure that students would be able to complete the academic year. The following is a
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 22 broad overview of the disruption and shifts which occurred in ten critical areas of teaching, learning and assessment (TLA): • Teaching and learning mode(l): Shifts in the mode of teaching and learning were either from full contact to fully online or from some form of blended learning to fully online. • lecturing mode: While academic staff adopted varying combinations of synchronous and asynchronous modes of presentation, the majority preferred the latter, which took the form of video recordings, audio recordings and written materials being uploaded on Blackboard. A number of online resources and guidelines were developed by different institutional structures, to support academic staff in key areas of TLA. Individual staff members also displayed much innovativeness in their development of TLA material and activities. • Teaching pedagogies: Teaching philosophies and accompanying methodologies would have inevitably been impacted as lecturers shifted to online delivery of their modules. This would make an interesting subject of research to determine how some of the commonly espoused teaching pedagogies, such as student-centred learning, collaborative learning, constructivism, and inquiry-based learning, were enabled in an online environment. • summative assessments: There was a significant shift from the traditional assessment model, to one of continuous assessments, with or without a major last assessment opportunity. In moving to continuous assessments, lecturers engaged in a mix of different types of assessments. Moderation practices were also adjusted due to time and logistical issues. • online platforms: Academic staff made primary use of Blackboard, but also used other common platforms like, Zoom, MS Teams, WhatsApp, and Google Classroom. The move to fully online teaching compelled staff members to adopt a different approach to how Blackboard was used, that being from simply a communication and repository system to one of active engagement with students in the learning process. • Tutoring: The various arrangements around tutoring had to be reviewed and adapted for the online mode. WhatsApp seemed to be the preferred medium through which students were engaged in tutorial activity. • learning material: The rapid move to online TLA resulted in additional time and effort needed to develop learning material and provide additional resources, appropriate to the online environment. • work-integrated education: Creative solutions, games and simulations had to be developed in collaboration with professional accreditation agencies for work-integrated learning. All modules in the relevant schools and departments were completed successfully. • Peer interaction and group dynamics: The nature of peer interaction involving group work and other forms of collaborative learning activities were affected by the shift to an online learning environment. This being an important aspect of teaching pedagogy would make an interesting area of research. • Time and space: Online TLA resulted in reduced spatial needs (constraints) and greater flexibility in terms of time, but that came with a need for more coordination of activities. • The College has a strong tradition of supporting
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 23 staff and students in their efforts to achieve optimally. The shift to online TLA brought to the fore several underlying and emerging challenges. • Data access and connectivity presented a major challenge to students in the initial stages but concerns about student access to online learning were addressed at institutional level, through the provision of data and, where necessary, of devices on loan. • The need for student access to specialised software for some modules presented a challenge to online teaching and learning. • A further challenge was to ensure that the extensive tutoring programme could continue online and remain effective. Therefore, there was an increase of 25% in the number of senior tutors, tutors and mentors appointed to enhance online support. WhatsApp seemed to become the preferred means for tutors to engage with their tutoring groups, or with individual students. • Staff also experienced their own technical problems relating to data, connectivity, and the need for software for alternative teaching and learning tools. These problems were somewhat alleviated through the institutional provision of an allowance for data, and the remote support provided by ICS for software. • The skills gap confronted by staff placed them on a sharp learning curve, as they began to develop online material and engage with students through various platforms. • There was an increase in the workload of staff given the time and effort needed to develop new material for the online environment. • Adjustment to working remotely, development of online material, dealing with student queries, increased administration, together with their personal challenges relating to the pandemic, contributed to staff fatigue and stress. • There were concerns as to whether TLA standards were compromised to any degree given the rapid transition to an online environment. In other words, were learning outcomes meaningfully achieved and evaluated? This concern was somewhat mitigated by various strategies that academic staff adopted in their development, provision, and monitoring of learning activities, and in the diverse mix of assessments and how they were administered. • Moderation practices were also adjusted due to time constraints and logistical issues. There seems to have been an increased incidence of student academic dishonesty, given the challenge of monitoring students taking assessments, and the absence of proper invigilation tools. Schools and departments put in place control measures and adopted a high level of vigilance in detecting assessment transgressions. An internal proctoring system was developed by the School of Accounting, which was able to confirm who was actually taking the assessment; however, it was still not able to fully eliminate collusion. Some use was also made of artificial intelligence approaches to compare scripts where collusion might be suspected. In all, the College felt assured that adequate checks and balances were in place and that the integrity of assessment had been maintained. However, there remains a need for more appropriate and credible online monitoring of summative assessments and a review of assessment strategies given the lessons learned in 2020. • The use of synchronous lecturing and tutoring sessions implied a need for coordination of activities across modules. Hence a large number of academic staff opted for asynchronous sessions. sTudenT Progress While much of the success of the College (CBE) may be viewed and evaluated qualitatively, there are the usual quantitative indicators that point to the progress made by the CBE. Student progress is usually reflected in measures relating to module success, graduation, dropouts, and time-to-completion. • The undergraduate module success rate grew from 85% in 2017 to 90% in 2020. There was an increase of 5% from 2019 to 2020. • The undergraduate dropout rate by the end of the first year declined from 12,8% in 2017 to 11,8% in 2020. There was an increase of 0,8% from 2019 to 2020. • The graduate output for undergraduate degrees and diplomas grew from 3 865 in 2017 to 4 184 in 2020. An increase of 4,8% was recorded from 2019 to 2020. • The undergraduate graduation rate increased from 22,9% in 2017 to 28,3% in 2020. An increase of 1,9% was recorded from 2019 to 2020. • The graduate output for postgraduate programmes (postgraduate diplomas, honours, master’s and doctorates) increased from 1 386 in 2017 to 1 403 in 2020. There was a 2% increase from 2019 to 2020. • The postgraduate graduation rate increased from 45,1% in 2017 to 47,8% in 2020. A decline of 0,7 of a percentage point was recorded from 2019 to 2020. • Undergraduate students in 3-year diploma programmes, who graduate in minimum time increased from 35% in 2017 to 42% in 2020. The was an increase of 5 percentage points from 2019 to 2020. • Undergraduate students in 3-year degree programmes, who graduate in minimum time increased from 41,3% in 2017 to 46% in 2020. There was an increase of 3 percentage points from 2019 to 2020.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 24 Programme QualifiCaTion mix There have been significant shifts in various programme-related areas, which reflects the agility of the CBE in responding to the dynamic world of economics and business. • The number of fully online programmes in the CBE grew from 2 in 2017 to 9 in 2020. There was a 50% increase from 2019 to 2020. • The CBE hosts six non-subsidised online programmes, namely Advanced Diplomas in Financial Markets, Logistics, People Performance Management, Transportation Management, a BCom (Accountancy) and a Bachelor (Human Resource Management). Online enrolments have grown from 75 students in 2018 to 2 463 students in 2020. • UJ hosts two undergraduate online enrichment modules (African Insights, and Artificial Intelligence in 4IR) of which students need to complete one module. From 2017 to 2019, some 2 300 CBE students completed African Insights. A remarkable change was observed in 2020 with about 2 200 students opting to complete AI in 4IR, compared to 350 students completing African Insights. • In a major boost for accountants of the future, the UJ CBE School of Accounting has become the first tertiary education institution in South Africa to adopt Xero Learn. Says Prof Amanda Dempsey, Senior Director: SOA, “We’re proud to be the first South African university to introduce Xero to our teaching syllabus. Our vision is to educate a generation of accountants that embrace the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). The partnership is a first for education in the accounting industry and will give our graduates the necessary tools to be well skilled, agile and ahead of the game”. • Joint interdisciplinary programmes with international institutions rose from 9 in 2017 to 13 in 2020. There was an 8,3% increase from 2019 to 2020. • The delivery of continuing education programmes (CEPs) has again been a growth area in the College during 2020 with 18 new programmes launched, of which 15 focused on the 4IR (4IR Ethics for Accountants, 4IR Ethics for Professionals in Business, 4IR Perspectives for Accounting, 4IR Perspectives for Professionals in Business, Advanced Technology Systems in Quality Management 4.0, An Introduction to Blockchain Technology for Accountants, An Introduction to Blockchain Technology for Professionals in Business, Artificial Intelligence: Perspectives for Accountants, Artificial Intelligence: Perspectives for Professionals in Business, Computational Intelligence for industry, Innovation Series: Industry 4IR, Intelligent System Development, Operational Excellence Strategy with Digital Transformation, Policy Governance of 4IR in Africa, Principles and Applications of 4IR in the Power and Energy Industry). Overall, CEP enrolment remained stable at 6 604 students (+1%). • The number of continuing education programmes with a 4IR focus increased from 4 in 2017 to 33 in 2020. There was an increase of 83% from 2019 to 2020. • In 2020, 2 231 continuing education programme (CEP) modules were offered through blended learning compared to 772 in 2017. There was an increase of 64% from 2019 to 2020. • The number of continuing education programmes, particularly in respect of shortlearning programmes, increased from 104 in 2017 to 134 in 2020. There was an increase of 15,5% from 2019 to 2020. sTraTegiC direCTion All things considered; the 2020 academic year ended better than expected. The CBE is certainly making significant strides in delivering quality education, with enhanced agility in responding to changing conditions. The need for a more streamlined programme and qualification mix (PQM), and one that is better aligned with the changing world of work, has been given much attention in 2020. Significant progress is expected in 2021 and the next few years. The following are, in summary, some key lessons and ideas that emerged from the 2020 experience, including ongoing developments in key strategic areas. • Flexibility in TLA planning is important in contributing to the degree of agility needed to respond swiftly to unexpected changes in circumstances. • Maintaining a blended learning approach and engaging in meaningful variations of it, allows for greater flexibility and a richer learning experience for students. • The rapid transition to online teaching and learning provided a stimulus for TLA innovation. The establishment of a CBE Teaching and Learning Innovation CoP in early 2020, will help in maintaining the momentum of innovation.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2020 25 • An institutional investment in smart classrooms that allows for live streaming of lessons, would bring together the benefits of contact and online teaching. Compulsory class attendance would become irrelevant, as students would be able to access, and participate in, the live lectures from anywhere. • There is a need for critical reflection on teaching pedagogies and how they can be optimally given effect in a blended or online learning environment, taking into consideration the learning profile of students in an environment of rapid technological change. • Critical reflection is also needed in assessments, to develop strategies that would meaningfully evaluate the attainment of expected learning outcomes. • Peer mentoring and student self-development programmes would play an increasingly prominent role in guiding students through their academic journey in an environment of rapid change. The piloting of a new Student Self-Development Programme in the CBE is an important step aimed at providing the kind of support needed for students to transition from school to university and to develop holistically as they journey through their academic studies. • The need for a more streamlined programme and qualification mix (PQM), and one that is better aligned with the changing world of work, has been given much attention in 2020. Significant progress is expected in 2021 and the next few years. looKing forward The impetus given to teaching and learning through the 2020 changes should not be overlooked, and the College intends to derive major benefits from this impetus going forward. A key issue is that with online teaching and learning continuing in 2021 quality of delivery of online learning is critical, and to enable this to become increasingly student-centred in terms of innovative pedagogies. A further key issue is to maintain the integrity of online assessments. Staff workloads were a major concern during 2020; it is hoped that, with all classes now online, staff will be able to devote additional time to pedagogies and curriculum innovation. The College will critically reflect on teaching pedagogies and how they can be optimally given effect in a blended, or online learning environment, taking into consideration the learning profile of students in an environment of rapid technological change. Critical reflection is also needed in assessments, to develop strategies that would more meaningfully evaluate the attainment of expected learning outcomes.www.uj.ac.za