Annual Report 2021 COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (CBE) 2021 @ A GLANCE 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 OVERVIEW 3 COMPARING 2021 WITH 2020 4 Table 1: CBE 2021 Strengths and Weaknesses 6 FITNESS FOR PURPOSE 6 Teaching and Learning 7 Undergraduate Enrichment Modules 7 Online Programmes 7 Continuing Education 7 Research and Innovation 8 Research Capacity 11 Postgraduate Profile 11 Research Structures 12 CBE Staff Profile 13 Staff Accomplishments 15 Academic Governance 15 LOOKING FORWARD 16 Table 2: Highlights and Key trends from the College 2017-2021 22 TEACHING AND LEARNING 23 OVERVIEW 23 TEACHING AND LEARNING INNOVATIONS IN 2021 24 School of Accounting 24 School of Consumer Intelligence and Information Systems 25 School of Economics 26 School of Management 27 School of Public Management and Governance and Public Policy 27 School of Tourism and Hospitality 28 STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 29 ENROLMENT AND STUDENT PROFILE 29 STUDENT ACCESS AND SUCCESS AND SUPPORT 30 PROGRAMME QUALIFICATION MIX 31 UJENIUS STRATEGY 31 TOWARDS TEACHING AND LEARNING FUTURE AGILITY 32 RESEARCH AND INNOVATION 33 OVERVIEW 33 RESEARCH CAPACITY AND EXCELLENCE 33 Research Outputs 34 Research Impact 34 Postdoctoral Research Fellows 34 Patents 34 Research Funding 34 TOWARDS RESEARCH FUTURE-AGILITY 34 GOING FORWARD 35 CBE Research Divisions 36 DHET-NRF SARCHI CHAIR IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION 40 DST/NRF SOUTH AFRICAN RESEARCH CHAIR IN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 45 DST/NRF/NEWTON FUND TRILATERAL RESEARCH CHAIR IN TRANSFORMATIVE INNOVATION, THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (4IR) AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 51 CENTRE OF COMPETITION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (CCRED) 55 PUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE (PEERC) 58 CENTRE FOR LOCAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (CENLED) 62 CENTRE FOR PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE 66 TECHNOPRENEURSHIP CENTRE 70 INSTITUTE FOR TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS STUDIES (ITLS) (AFRICA) 73 FOOD EVOLUTION RESEARCH LABORATORY (FERL)
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 1 COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (CBE) 2021 @ A GLANCE
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 2 Prof Daneel van Lill, Executive Dean College of Business and Economics Executive Summary OVERVIEW The year 2021 provided many opportunities to deepen knowledge and practice of the art of agility – in short, to respond to CBE stakeholders’ changing expectations while maintaining a solid good governance and operations backbone. President Cyril Ramaphosa announced lockdown in South Africa for 21 days on 23 March 2020, aiming to contain the spread of the coronavirus. Some 700 days later, we continue to implement innovations counteracting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The first vaccines, administered in February 2021, functioned to a greater or lesser extent. Consequently, the development of new vaccines raced against the coronavirus, which had mutated speedily towards the more contagious Delta variant by July 2021. By December 2021, Omicron was making headlines in the world of viruses, again halting the staggering local economy, notably the tourism sector, in its tracks. On the bright side, this most recent mutant is associated with fewer deaths and hospitalisations, flagging South Africans’ hope towards recovery. Retrospectively, the pandemic has changed every facet of our society, not least how universities responded rapidly and innovatively in the face of threats looming large. The detail of UJ’s response to the pandemic was narrated by the Deputy Vice-Chancellors, Professors Saurabh Sinha and Angina Parekh (https://www.uj.ac.za/news/ujs-top-executivesexplains-how-the-institution-steered-the-2020academic-year). On the dark side, statistics became real regarding the names of family members, friends, colleagues, and students who did not survive the pandemic. We still feel the high impact of disrupted supply and food chains, as we adapt to demands of a new world of work, cyber-security attacks, economic downturn, and social unrest. On the bright side, the UJ community has evolved our virtual teaching, learning, research, and outreach capacity. Notably, wisdom has been gained through a series of thought-provoking virtual events to answer how we reimagine the post-pandemic world. Because of the impact of the pandemic on the global economy, this daunting task seems ceaseless, and we assimilate what we have learnt into UJ’s organisational memory. February 2022 saw staff and students returning to campus, complying with COVID-19 protocols and UJ’s mandatory vaccination policy. Our campuses are alive with the sound and motion of people in search of a better future. Zooming into the CBE progress, 2021 may well be considered as the best of the five years since the CBE was established, when two legacy UJ faculties dedicated to the field of economics and business were merged.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 3 Why are the CBE results so encouraging? Since lockdown, staff and students have for two years been confined to a restricted living environment, which emphasised the need to focus on the physical and psychological wellbeing of the CBE community. Staff and students soon gained deep insight into the taxing nature of multitasking the pedagogy of care. On a more critical note, unpacking the CBE 2021 progress portrays how the CBE heart’s four chambers are beating systemically and rhythmically. • A UJ CBE mindset empowers the new generation CBE academics and academic governance staff to drive support networks. The roles and responsibilities of academics and academic governance staff have expanded. Therefore, much more thought and action are being invested in staff and student support, in reconnecting staff and students’ networks, and in organisational wellbeing. Ultimately, to sustain the CBE spirit of agility. • The CBE has invested the gift of time into longerterm strategic thinking by creating plan-ahead teams, deliberately including people identified as future leaders. The CBE’s investment in people skills development, awakening mindsets to manage in new ways and building capacity across the CBE, has enabled a vast shift in secured progress. In Prof Chris Brink’s words, this shift is marked by an alignment of “what we are good at” as much as “what we are good for.” • The CBE grows empathic managers able to stimulate solutions. It does not take massive investments to cultivate the ability to lead. The journey starts with realising how easy it is to fall prey to the temptation to micromanage contingencies. • The COVID-19 pandemic has taught the CBE that a broad leadership approach yields better results when compared to a leadership team that can do a few things very well. The CBE has functioned at an incredible pace since 2017, regardless of the challenges that came our way. The 2021 Annual Report testifies to much resilience and innovation. For ease of interpretation, the CBE monitors and evaluates progress against UJ’s six Strategic Objectives (SO1 to SO6) outlined in the UJ Strategic Plan 2025. COMPARING 2021 WITH 2020 • SO1 (excellence in research and innovation) and SO5 (national and global reputation management) account for 40 key performance indicators (KPIs), of which 24 (60%) improved, 4 (10%) were sustained, and 12 (30%) showed slightly lower results. • SO2 (excellence in teaching and learning), SO3 (an international profile for global excellence and stature) and SO4 (an enriching studentfriendly learning and living experience) account for 33 KPIs of which 26 (79%) improved, 3 (9%) were sustained, and 4 (12%) showed slightly lower results. • SO6 (fitness for global excellence and stature) accounts for 27 KPIs, of which 25 (93%) improved, and 2 (7%) showed slightly lower results. • Overall, the CBE has progressed in 75%, maintained 7%, and showed slightly lower results in 18% of its KPIs. Table 1 reflects essential observations. Highlights and key trends from the College’s activities over the past five years, notably since 2020, are summarised in Table 2 and will be discussed further in more detail in this report.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 4 Table 1: CBE 2021 strengths and weaknesses Strengths (Progressive performance since 2020) Weaknesses (Weaker results since 2020) Enrolment 1. Enrolment in honours programmes grew to 1 304 (+11%). 2. Enrolment in master’s programmes grew to 842 (+12%). 3. Enrolment in doctoral programmes grew to 302 (+16%). Enrolment 1. Hugely affected by travel restrictions and the absence of a UJ campus experience, international undergraduate enrolment dropped to 962 (-5%). 2. Hugely affected by travel restrictions and the absence of a UJ campus experience, international postgraduate enrolment dropped to 235 (-51%). Graduate output 4. Honours graduates grew to 850 (+19%) 5. PG Below M grew to 1 181 (+6%) 6. Doctorate output grew to 40 (+8%). Graduate output Overall, postgraduate output dropped, undoubtedly due to the societal, professional, economic, and personal impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic since most of our students at this level are senior managers in full-time employment. 3. Postgraduate Diploma graduates dropped to 331 (-19%) since students were heavily reliant on private and public sector sponsorships. 4. Master’s graduates dropped to 193 (-14%). 5. Black South African doctorates dropped to 5 (-220%). 6. The percentage of honours students completing in minimum time dropped to 62% (-7%). 7. The percentage of doctoral candidates completing in minimum time dropped to 46% (-6%).
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 5 Strengths (Progressive performance since 2020) Weaknesses (Weaker results since 2020) Research output and impact 7. Research output units submitted have improved to 608 units (+34%). 8. Scopus-listed publications improved to 576 (+21%). Research output by visiting scholars 9. Research output units per PDRF have improved to 1.64 (+112%). 10. Research output units per visiting associate professor and visiting professor have improved to 30 (+39%). 11. Research output units per visiting associate/ professor of practice have improved to 5 (+25%). 12. Research output units per senior research associate have improved to 88 (+11%). Undergraduate qualification mix, international collaboration, and programme delivery 13. Bridging programmes have increased to 8 (+14%). 14. Joint international programmes have increased by 2 (+15%). 15. Academic initiatives advancing 4IR have increased to 24 (+33%). 16. Inbound students attending CBE academic events increased to 1 549 (+26%). 17. Outbound students attending international academic events increased to 2 847 (+42%). 18. The student/academic staff ratio has improved 1:35 (11%) through the appointment of assistant lecturers, also serving to grow our future pool of lecturers. 19. Continuing education enrolment has grown to 7 232 (+10%). Talent investment 20. Academic staff full-time equivalents have grown to 403 (+21%). 21. The number of full professors has grown to 41 (+21%). 22. The number of black professors has grown to 19 (+73%). 23. Promotions to the rank of senior lecturer increased this category by 9 (8%). 24. The number of academics holding a doctorate as the highest qualification has increased to 149 (+7%). 25. The number of academics holding a master’s degree as the highest qualification has increased to 176 (+33%). External research funding 8. External research funding has dropped from R28 million to R26 million (-8%); notably, international grant support dropped from some R8 million to R4 million (-51%).
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 6 FITNESS FOR PURPOSE The CBE 2021 Annual Report reflects a counterdisruptive strategy built on the strengths of its School of Accounting, the School of Consumer Intelligence and Information Systems, the School of Economics, the School of Management, the School of Public Management, Governance and Public Policy, the School of Tourism and Hospitality and an agile academic governance force directed by the deanery. The CBE community progresses by using technology to educate more people than ever before in business and economics. We impact by generating knowledge, adding value to learning, and teaching how to be better informed, healthier, safer, how to behave better, connect, and learn faster. In so doing, we ensure that the ‘black box’ accelerated by COVID-19 serves as an enabler in the emerging new world of work. The past year saw the CBE extending its global scholarly network and concentrating investments into Greenfield projects to expand the economy and create more jobs for unemployed South Africans, of which a staggering 60% are unemployed youths. We integrate the 4IR into our teaching, learning, and research agenda to equip our graduates with a working knowledge of the future of manufacturing, geopolitics, economic trade wars, and the ability to navigate systems for growth spots that can assist with growing national wealth. In the following, while taking a closer look at how the College staff rose to the challenges faced during 2021, we also focus on how these challenges provided opportunities for rethinking traditional approaches to our purpose of generating knowledge and educating our students for the post-COVID world. TEACHING AND LEARNING Academics in the College have faced crucial challenges since 2019 with the sudden shift to online learning but have risen to the occasion. Indeed, the sudden requirement to move to online learning, while creating considerable uncertainty and stress, also focused our efforts to ensure that students completed the 2021 academic year. Several modules had, in previous years, already introduced blended learning, and staff who were not yet familiar with online learning were aided by the various institutional support structures such as CAT, ICS, ADS, the UJ Library and the Academic Planning Division. The staff made primary use of Blackboard but also drew on other common platforms such as Zoom, MS Teams, WhatsApp, and Google Classroom. In a significant boost for future accountants, the UJ CBE School of Accounting became the first tertiary education institution in South Africa to adopt Xero Learn. Says Prof Amanda Dempsey, Senior Director: SOA, “We’re proud to be the first South African University to introduce Xero to our teaching syllabus. Our vision is to educate a generation of accountants that embraces the fourth industrial revolution. The partnership is a first for education in the accounting industry and will give our graduates the necessary tools to be well skilled, agile, and ahead of the game”. The move to online learning required some adjustments in terms of pedagogies. Properly developed online learning typically caters to student-centred learning and pedagogies, such as collaborative learning, constructivism, and inquirybased learning. Hence, there was a broad shift from using Blackboard simply as a communication and repository system to active engagement with students in the learning process. Most staff adopted asynchronous modes of presentation, in video recordings, audio recordings, and written materials uploaded to Blackboard. This more student-centred approach will allow students to accommodate better their engagement with learning materials within their very full-time schedules. A particular challenge was faced by those programmes that included a work-integrated education component as a requirement for graduation. This challenge was addressed creatively by using online games, simulation components, etc., in collaboration with professional accreditation agencies, which allowed all modules in the relevant departments to be completed. The CBE, in partnership with other faculties, played an instrumental role in rewriting the UJ Policy on Work-Integrated Education, ably led by Prof Roelien Brink. The College has a strong tradition of supporting students to achieve optimally. Our concerns about student access to online learning were addressed at an institutional level by providing data and, where necessary, devices on loan. A further challenge was to ensure that the extensive tutoring programme could continue online and remain effective. The past year marked an increase of 25% in the number of senior tutors, tutors, and mentors appointed to enhance online support. WhatsApp became the preferred means for tutors to engage with their tutoring groups or individual students.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 7 Maintaining the integrity of assessment in the online environment was critical. At an initial College meeting, a contingency plan involving a College-wide shift to continuous assessment was set up, gradually evolving into detailed module assessment plans. A range of models of continuous assessment emerged, both with and without a final assessment opportunity, as best appropriate to individual disciplines. Moderation practices were also adjusted in terms of time constraints and logistical issues. An internal proctoring system was able to confirm who was taking the assessment but could not eliminate collusion. Some use was also made of artificial intelligence approaches to compare scripts where collusion might be suspected. In all, the College felt assured that adequate checks and balances were in place to maintain the integrity of the assessments. Student performance showed that our approaches had indeed been successful. Module success rates increased overall from 85% to 90%. The student dropout rate had decreased from 12% to 11,7% in 2021 but was well in line with the five-year trend of -0,8% year-on-year. Governance of the changed approaches to course delivery was professionally managed under the leadership of the deanery, directors of schools, and heads of departments. The development of teaching, learning, and assessment plans at the College level guided schools and departments in developing their plans. Monitoring of progress took the form of weekly reports to the deanery. Blackboard Module Activity Reports played an essential role in monitoring student activity. These reports often tended to indicate lower student activity than expected. Yet, it became clear that students were downloading all the material at once and then working offline in their own time. However, student activity picked up significantly during assessments when students had to be on Blackboard. In 2022, the CBE will follow a hybrid teaching and learning model consisting of in-person and online engagements. The 80% contact and 20% online ratio will serve as a broad guide for the combination of in-person and online activities, especially for first-year undergraduate students. However, we expect variation across the various departments’ modules due to differences among disciplines and enrolment sizes. The College will continue to innovate and advance the teaching and learning environment. There is still need for critical reflection on teaching pedagogies and how they can be optimally given effect in a blended or online learning environment, taking into consideration the learning profile of students in an environment of rapid technological change. Critical reflection is also needed around assessments, to develop strategies that would more meaningfully evaluate the attainment of expected learning outcomes. UNDERGRADUATE ENRICHMENT MODULES UJ hosts two undergraduate online enrichment modules (African Insights and AI in 4IR), of which students need to complete one. Between 2017 and 2021, some 2 584 CBE students had completed either the enrichment module African Insights or AI in 4IR. ONLINE PROGRAMMES The CBE hosts six non-subsidised online programmes, namely Advanced Diplomas in Financial Markets, Logistics, People Performance Management, Transportation Management, a BCom (Accountancy), and a Bachelor (Human Resource Management). CONTINUING EDUCATION The delivery of continuing education programmes (CEPs) has again been a growth area in the College during 2021, focusing on 4IR (4IR Ethics for Accountants, 4IR Ethics for Professionals in Business, 4IR Perspectives for Accounting, 4IR Perspectives for Professionals in Business, Advanced Technology Systems in Quality Management 4.0, An Introduction to Blockchain Technology for Accountants, An Introduction to Blockchain Technology for Professionals in Business, Artificial Intelligence: Perspectives for Accountants, Artificial Intelligence: Perspectives for Professionals in Business, Computational Intelligence for industry, Innovation Series: Industry 4IR, Intelligent System Development, Operational Excellence Strategy with Digital Transformation, Policy Governance of 4IR in Africa, Principles and Applications of the 4IR in Power and Energy Industry). Overall in 2021, CBE CEP enrolment has grown by 10% to 7 232 students. RESEARCH AND INNOVATION The year 2021 has been encouraging from the perspective of research and innovation. At the time of writing this report, the number of research output units submitted had grown from 454 in 2020 to 602 in 2021 (+32%). The CBE submitted around 955 individual publications in 2021, compared to the 686 in 2020.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 8 Prof CM Rogerson Prof A Thomas Prof RN Nunkoo Prof C Hill Prof DE Uwizeyimana The reduction in conference publications (8%) corresponds with the CBE strategy to steer the College away from over-reliance on conferences. The increase in the number of journal articles (81%), books (3%), and book chapters (9%) submitted in 2021 is pleasing and points to a continuous increase in the quality of our research outputs. Numerous researchers have engaged with the Fourth Industrial Revolution, with 16% of research output units reflecting insight into the evolving field of 4IR, and a further 5% to the interface between 4IR and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. In terms of impact, the number of Scopus-listed publications increased to 576 (+21%), Scopus-listed publications in collaboration with international scholars increased to 45% (+2,4%), and Scopus citations are standing at 2 749 (+1%). Publications in the Top 10% of global journals (SNIP) increased by 1,4% to 28,6%. This contribution to UJ’s global excellence and stature is remarkable, considering the impact of the pandemic in publication delays, for instance, in obtaining feedback from reviewers and obtaining the mandatory documentation required for the submission of publications. RESEARCH CAPACITY To further deepen research into the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), the CBE has established the Centre for Data Science (CADS) to lead applied C-rated: Prof A Thomas, Prof C Hill, Prof C Marnewick, Prof DE Uwizeyimana, Prof F Adekambi, Prof G Verhoef, Prof GA Goldman, Prof H Twinomurinzi, Prof I Botha, Prof JH Eita, Prof JM Rogerson, Prof JW Muteba Mwamba, Prof KJ Bwalya, Prof KN Njenga, Prof LG White, Prof M Mpinganjira, Prof N Ngepah, Prof SJ Roberts, Prof T Moloi, Prof TJ Tselepis, Dr J Mba, Dr O Mosweu, Dr V Kalitanyi data science research and offer specialist training and postgraduate qualifications in the field. In addition, the Centre for Technopreneurship in the School of Consumer Intelligence and Information Systems is contributing hugely to graduate employment and self-employment through technological innovation. Another impressive development in the research and innovation portfolio is that the College further grew its list of NRF-rated researchers from 27 in 2020 to 31 in 2021. NRF ratings fall within the following categories: leading international researchers (A), internationally acclaimed researchers (B), established researchers (C), prestigious awards (P), and promising young researchers (Y). CBE NRF-rated researchers include: B-rated:
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 9 Prof F Adekambi Prof I Botha Prof N Ngepah Prof KJ Bwalya Dr J Mba Prof C Marnewick Prof GA Goldman Prof JM Rogerson Prof T Moloi Prof LG White Dr V Kalitanyi Prof G Verhoef Prof JH Eita Prof SJ Roberts Prof KN Njenga Dr O Mosweu Prof H Twinomurinzi Prof JW Muteba Mwamba Prof TJ Tselepis Prof M Mpinganjira
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 10 Dr JK Giddy Prof Angustin Fosu Prof D Sanders-Nel Prof AO Ade-Ibijola Prof Edward Lorenz Prof C Schachtebeck Dr MI Raborife Prof Arnold Bakker Prof N Meyer Prof BD Simo Kengne Prof Eva Demerouti Y-rated: Dr JK Giddy, Dr MI Raborife, Prof AO Ade-Ibijola, Prof BD Simo Kengne, Prof D Sanders-Nel, Prof N Meyer, Prof C Schachtebeck The CBE has continued to advance the affiliation of global scholars to increase the depth of our scholarly networks, which, coupled with the ten members of staff who have achieved their doctorates in 2021, has augmented research and supervision capacity. By the end of 2021, the College has affiliated 294 visiting scholars (8% more than 2020). The investment in the number of PDRFs has been increased to 62 (+41%). The CBE hosts 11 distinguished visiting professors, who, on average, present Scopus field-weighted citation indices of 2.64, meaning that their publications have been cited 2.64 times more than the world average for similar publications. These esteemed scholars include: Prof Angustin Fosu (University of Ghana), Prof Arnold Bakker (Erasmus University of Rotterdam), Prof Edward Lorenz (University of Notre Dame), Prof Eva Demerouti (Eindhoven University of Technology), Prof Frank Riedel (Bielefeld University), Prof Jarkko Saarinen (University Oulu), Prof Naresh Malhotra (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA), Prof Robin Nunkoo (University of Mauritius), Prof Stefano Ponte (Copenhagen Business School), Prof Thomas Baum (University of Strathclyde) and Prof Ulrich Schmidt (University of Kiel).
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 11 Prof Frank Riedel Prof Stefano Ponte Prof Naresh Malhotra Prof Ulrich Schmidt Prof Jarkko Saarinen Prof Thomas Baum Prof Robin Nunkoo The South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI) was established in 2006 by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the National Research Foundation (NRF). It is designed to attract and retain excellence in research and innovation at South African public universities through establishing Research Chairs at these universities with a long-term investment trajectory of up to fifteen years. The College takes pride in hosting three SARChI Research Chairs: Prof Cecile Nieuwenhuizen, SARChI Research Chair in Entrepreneurship Education; Prof Erika Kraemer Mabula, SARChI Research Chair in Transformative Innovation, 4IR and Sustainable Development; and Prof Fiona Tregenna, SARChI Research Chair in Industrial Development. In 2021, CBE’s total external research funding declined by 8%, from R28 million to R26 million, leading to a substantial drive towards grant applications with promising results awaited in 2022. POSTGRADUATE PROFILE Postgraduate enrolment below master’s grew in 2021 to 1 998 (+10%); enrolments for master’s grew to 842 (+12%), while doctorate enrolments increased to 302 (+16%). In 2021, postgraduate output below master’s grew to 1 181 (+6%). Master’s graduates dropped from a five-year peak of 224 in 2020 to 193 (-14%) in 2021. This drop is undoubtedly due to the societal, professional, economic, and personal impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic since most of our students at this level are in full-time senior-level employment. Doctoral output grew slightly to 40 (+8%). The CBE is well on schedule to improve higher degrees administration processes. In 2021, the College Higher Degrees Committee started migrating many of its processes online. The migration is being done in a phased approach. It will eventually culminate in increased automation and available information in the higher degrees administration processes, in line with the aspirations of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. RESEARCH STRUCTURES The CBE houses an institute and nine centres dedicated to research and community development. • The Centre for Competition, Regulation and Economic Development (CCRED), located in the School of Economics, specialises in industrial development, competition and barriers to entry, and regional value chains. CCRED, for example, draws leading global experts, such as Dr Antonio Andreoni (SOAS, University of London, UK); Dr Rashmi Banga (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development); Parminder Jeet Singh (IT for Change, India); Prof David Kupfer (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Prof Stefano Ponte (Copenhagen Business School, Denmark); Dr Tim Sturgeon (MIT Industrial Performance
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 12 Centre, USA) and Dr Jinkeun Yu (Senior Research Fellow, Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade). • The Centre for Public Management and Governance, located in the School of Public Management, Governance and Public Policy, offers two CEPs. These programmes are integrated academic and professional distance education programmes designed for students, working professionals and elected local political leaders, offered through online technologyenhanced distance learning. • The Centre for Public Policy and African Studies, located in the School of Public Management, Governance and Public Policy, is a hub of teaching and learning targeted primarily at recruiting public-spirited students who are involved or aspire to be involved in policymaking, policy implementation, or policy research. • The Centre for Local Economic Development (CENLED), located in the School of Economics, is partnering in an international research study on strengthening urban engagement of universities in Asia and Africa, funded by the British Academy. The project includes six other international partners from Iran, Iraq, the Philippines, Scotland, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. CENLED has established a three-year capacitybuilding programme for Gauteng Department of Economic Development officials. • The Food Evolution Research Laboratory (FERL), located in the School of Tourism and Hospitality, contributes to combating the impact of COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown on dietary habits and food choices. FERL studied the dietary habits and possible health outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 lockdown. FERL and the Nutrition Society of South Africa (NSSA) hosted a virtual symposium to commemorate World Food Day. • The Institute for Transport and Logistics Studies (ITLS) (Africa), located within the School of Management, Department of Transport and Supply Chain Management, responds to industry needs for independent, unbiased, relevant, and up-to-date research. Its international partner institution is the Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies at the University of Sydney. In 2021, the contribution of ITLS (Africa) ranged from surveys on trends in transport, logistics, and supply chain management to once-off specialist research projects, such as the skills gaps in Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. • The Public and Environment Economic Research Centre (PEERC) , located in the School of Economics, is dedicated to basic, applied, and strategic research in environmental economics. Governments and development agencies have now recognised the critical role of environmental assets for sustainable development. This increased focus on the healthy environment has shifted the fiscal debates around the world to policies that promote the effective incorporation of environmental concerns into development decision making. • The Technopreneurship Centre, located in the School of Consumer Intelligence and Information Systems, is an ideation and innovation hub. The Centre fosters collaboration between students and industry partners to develop new technologies. Students must structure real-life innovative solutions in intelligent software systems, video games, mobile applications (apps), and other forms of technological solutions that address business, economic and societal challenges as required by industries, local communities, and the government. CBE STAFF PROFILE There have been significant shifts in staff profile during 2021 in terms of staff gaining their doctorate and staff promotions. Staff with doctorates have steadily progressed since 2017, when 98 staff held a doctorate; the total moved to 149 in 2021. Similarly, an outstanding total of 21 staff were promoted across the various ranks. Five colleagues were promoted to full professor: Professors Crystal Hoole, David Pooe, Dominique Uwizeyimana, Kevin Nell, and Shepherd Dhliwayo. Staff members promoted to associate professor include Chris Schachtebeck, Reena das Nair and Roslyn de Braine. Finally, the following colleagues were promoted to senior lecturer: Dr Andrea Potgieter, Dr Calvin Mabaso, Dr Joyce Toendepi, Dr Karolina Laba, Dr Leon Janse van Vuuren, Dr Milan de Wet, Dr N Cunningham, Dr Rozanne Smith, Dr Seugnet Bronkhorst, Dr Siya Nyikana, Dr Stella Bvuma, Dr Vaisha Harilal, and Ms Lydia Pelcher. The College’s commitment to developing younger staff, not least through their participation in UJ’s Accelerated Academic Mentoring Programme (with approximately 70 CBE participants), is having a considerable impact.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 13 STAFF ACCOMPLISHMENTS The accomplishments of CBE staff on the international and national stage are too numerous to mention in detail. CBE staff members have been elected to the boards of learned societies and been appointed as visiting professors at global universities. They have also given keynote presentations at international conferences, secured notable international conferences for South Africa, and hosted conferences that brought leading experts together for dialogue and networking. May I draw attention to 11 remarkable staff achievements in 2021. Dr Beate Stiehler-Mulder secured the UJ Wholesale and Retail Leadership Chair to professionalise and improve skills levels in the Wholesale and Retail Sector and to position wholesale and retail as an attractive career proposition for young talent by developing qualifications at NQF Levels 5 to 10 and innovative research. Dr Collins Leke and Dr Nico Strydom waved the UJ flag high with their industry-wide acknowledgment by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) for their research titled ‘Enhance your Digital Acumen’. Dr Stella Bvuma was elected to the Executive Committee of the South African Institute for Computer Scientists and Information Technologists. Ms Akona Babana scooped the award as Woman Academic of the Year at the Association for the Advancement of Black Accountants of Southern Africa (ABASA), for her exceptional effort and dedication with regard to accountancy careers for women.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 14 Ms Boniswa Madikizela received the Trailblazer in Academia Award in recognition of her contribution as a Chartered Accountant, trailblazing a real and tangible impact on society. She achieved top honours at the African Women Chartered Accountants virtual recognition awards. Ms Wadzanai Mabuto was acknowledged as a Power Hour Coach at the SAICA Women in Leadership conference. Prof Claude Mayer was elected a Fellow of the International Academy for Intercultural Research (IAIR). This Academy consists of scholars from multiple disciplines, including, Anthropology, Communication, Education, Management, Policy Science, Psychology, and Sociology. Prof Linda de Beer was appointed as Non-Executive Director for Shoprite Holdings and will serve on the company’s Audit and Risk Committee. Prof Natanya Meyer was elected Chairperson of the Entrepreneurship Development in Higher Education (EDHE) Community of Practice (CoP) for Entrepreneurship.
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 15 Prof Shepherd Dhliwayo was awarded the UJ Vice-Chancellor’s Distinguished Award for Teaching and Learning. Prof Talita Greyling has led the development of the first real-time balancing algorithm measuring nations’ evaluative wellbeing by the hour. The Gross National Happiness Project (www.gnh.today) extracts data from a live stream of tweets and uses natural language processing to code sentiments. Prof Greyling’s initial international project team of behavioural economists included South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia, and has now grown to participation by 11 countries. The New Zealand Treasury now officially uses the Gross National Happiness Today Index live as an official economic indicator on the NZ Statistic COVID-19 data portal. Prof Greyling was also awarded the UJ Vice-Chancellor’s Distinguished Award for the best innovation in 2021 and elected Vice-President of the International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) (global). ACADEMIC GOVERNANCE The College would not function without its 127 committed, hardworking professional administrators and 40 operational staff members who take a broad view of the University, the College and our staff and students’ best interests. The CBE renders a one-stop service to some 27 000 registered students on three different campuses, ranging from certificate to doctorate level, representing 43% of the University’s student population. This foremost responsibility is divided among Prof Sivan Chetty (Vice-Dean: Teaching and Learning), Prof Kelvin Bwalya (Vice-Dean: Research and Internationalisation), Prof Marita Pietersen (Head: CBE Quality Assurance), Dr Ronel Toerien (Manager: CBE Brand, Marketing and Internationalisation), Ms Maria Motaung and Ms Elmarie Vermeulen (the two CBE Heads of College Administration), Ms Delia Arends (Head: Dean’s Administration), and Ms Yasmiena Sally-Joyce (Executive Secretary to the Dean). LOOKING FORWARD Overall, the CBE has progressed well in 2021, and remarkably since 2017. Underpinning the mindset of all staff in the College is the theme of connectedness, of productive and active interdisciplinary connections within the College, as well as a vast set of continental and international relations, to ensure that globally, the UJ College of Business and Economics is top of mind and top of the class. The CBE leader team is confident that the CBE, with the collaboration of all role-players across the private and public sectors and civil society, will help turn business into a powerful engine that drives our economy forward. We express our deep appreciation for individual and collective commitment to our future impact. The end of 2022 will see my last of three five-year terms as Executive Dean. I am looking forward to contributing to the UJ CBE in a different role. My sincere thanks for many opportunities to explore and learn from my colleagues, students, and other CBE stakeholders. I wish you the absolute best in forging a better future. Prof Daneel van Lill Executive Dean College of Business and Economics
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 16 HIGHLIGHTS AND KEY TRENDS FROM THE COLLEGE Table 2: CBE Progress – 2017 to 2021 UJ Strategic Objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Progress 2020 to 2021 Year- on-year trend since 2017 SO1 (Excellence in research and innovation) and SO5 (National and global reputation management) Postgraduate programme qualification mix # PG Diploma programmes 2 3 3 4 4 0 1 # Honours programmes 24 22 22 22 22 0 0 # Master’s programmes 51 46 45 45 45 0 -1 # Doctorate programmes 30 28 26 26 26 0 -1 Enrolment Subsidised enrolment – Postgraduate Diploma 713 926 770 644 694 50 (8%) -32 Subsidised enrolment – Honours 1 259 1 070 1 103 1 178 1 304 126 (11%) 20 Subsidised enrolment – Postgraduate Diploma and Honours 1 972 1 996 1 873 1 822 1 998 176 (10%) -12 Subsidised enrolment – Master’s 735 731 753 752 842 90 (12%) 24 Subsidised enrolment – Doctorate 169 201 230 260 302 42 (16%) 33 Subsidised enrolment – Total postgraduate 2 876 2 928 2 856 2 834 3 142 308 (11%) 44 International enrolment – Undergraduate 906 1046 1062 1013 962 -51 (-5%) 8 International enrolment – Postgraduate 401 366 352 355 235 -120 (-34%) -34 International enrolment – Total 1 307 1 412 1 414 1 368 1 197 -171 (-13%) -26 Graduates Postgraduate Output – Honours 1 179 830 706 714 850 136 (19%) -77 Postgraduate Output – Postgraduate Diploma 32 370 460 395 331 -64 (-16%) 62 Postgraduate Output – HEQF Level 8 1 211 1 200 1 166 1 109 1 181 72 (6%) -15 Postgraduate Output – Master’s 164 163 160 224 193 -31 (-14%) 12 Postgraduate Output – Doctorates 11 23 31 37 33 -4 (-11%) 6 Postgraduate Output – SA black doctorands 3 8 8 16 5 -11 (-69%) 1
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 17 UJ Strategic Objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Progress 2020 to 2021 Year- on-year trend since 2017 Postgraduate Output – Total 1 386 1 386 1 357 1 370 1 407 37 (3%) 3 % Honours students completing in one year 57% 64% 65% 69% 62% -7% 2% % M-students completing in two years 27% 28% 18% 23% 26% 3% -1% % D-students completing in four years 46% 30% 55% 51% 46% -6% 2% Research output and capacity development Research Output Units (DHET Accredited) (Target for 2021 = 441) 285 286 440 454 608 154 (34%) 81 # Scopus-listed publications 267 332 593 476 576 100 (21%) 76 % Scopus-listed publications with international co-authors 39% 38% 33% 43% 45% 2% 2% # Scopus-listed publications in the broad field of 4IR 21 53 67 83 70 -13 (-16%) 13 # Citations in Scopus 1 777 2 650 3 353 2 783 2749 -34 (-1%) 208 % Publications in Top 10% journals by Source-normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 29% 25% 24% 27% 29% 2% 0% # of NRF-rated researchers 14 19 23 27 29 2 (7%) 4 External research funding – National (ZAR million) R5.87 R7.83 R8.71 R20.00 R21.91 R1.91 (10%) R4.42 External research funding – International (ZAR million) R1.55 R1.94 R2.08 R8.13 R3.97 R2.12 R1.10 External research funding – Total (ZAR million) R7.42 R9.77 R10.79 R28.13 R25.88 -R2.25 (-8%) R5.53 Visiting Scholars – # PDRFs 12 27 38 44 62 18 (41%) 12 Visiting Scholars – Research Output by PDRFs 3.52 12.78 20.27 34.07 70.18 36 (106%) 15.46 Visiting Scholars – Research Output per PDRF 0.29 0.47 0.53 0.77 1.13 (46%) 0.20 Visiting Scholars – # Distinguished Visiting Professors 5 7 9 11 12 1 (9%) 2 Visiting Scholars – # Visiting Professors 5 8 11 16 17 1 (6%) 3 Visiting Scholars – # Visiting Associate Professors 4 9 11 12 13 1 (8%) 2 Visiting Scholars – Visiting APs and Ps (ROUs) 7 11 14 21 30 8 (39%) 6
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 18 UJ Strategic Objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Progress 2020 to 2021 Year- on-year trend since 2017 Visiting Scholars – ROU (Visiting APs and Ps) 0.50 0.46 0.44 0.55 0.71 0.16 (29%) 0.05 Visiting Scholars – # Professors of Practice 2 8 15 17 18 1 (6%) 4 Visiting Scholars – # Associate Professors of Practice 4 4 4 4 5 1 (25%) 0 Visiting Scholars – # Senior Fellows/ Senior Research Associates 41 52 63 79 88 9 (11%) 12 Visiting Scholars – # Fellows/Research Associates 43 56 71 89 79 -10 (-11%) 11 Visiting Scholars – Total 116 171 222 272 294 22 (8%) 46 SO2 (Excellence in teaching and learning), SO3 (An international profile for global excellence and stature) and SO4 (An enriching student-friendly learning and living experience) Undergraduate Programme Qualification Mix, collaboration and delivery mode # Undergraduate subsidised programmes 65 59 58 52 49 -3 (-6%) -4 # Continuing Education Programmes (cumulative) – Whole Programmes 10 10 13 13 13 (%) 1 # Continuing Education Programmes (cumulative) – Bridging Programmes 6 7 7 7 8 1 (14%) 0 # Continuing Education Programmes (cumulative) – Short Learning Programmes (notably involving 4IR) 88 91 96 114 118 4 (4%) 8 # Continuing Education Programmes (cumulative) – Total 104 108 116 134 139 5 (4%) 10 # Continuing Education Programmes on 4IR (cumulative) 4 7 18 33 35 2 (6%) 9 # Joint, interdisciplinary programmes with international institutions (cumulative) 9 10 12 13 15 2 (15%) 2 # Academic initiatives advancing 4IR (cumulative) 4 11 14 18 24 6 (33%) 5 # Inbound students attending academic events virtually 1 231 1 549 318 (26%) 318 # Outbound students attending academic events virtually 2 005 2 847 842 (42%) 842 # Fully online programmes 2 6 6 9 9 0 2 # Blended learning modules offered in contact programmes 772 1 088 1 364 2 231 2 235 4 (%) 407 # UG completion of the enrichment module African Insights 2 308 2 547 2 233 349 1 308 959 (275%) -420
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 19 UJ Strategic Objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Progress 2020 to 2021 Year- on-year trend since 2017 # UG completion of the enrichment module AI in 4IR 2 164 1 276 -888 (-41%) -888 # Total UG completion of the enrichment modules 2 308 2 547 2 233 2 513 2 584 71 (3%) 52 Enrolment Subsidised enrolment – Undergraduate diplomas 6 773 6 393 6 109 6 064 6 191 127 (2%) -149 Subsidised enrolment – Undergraduate degrees 10 088 9 756 9 205 8 742 8 872 130 (1%) -345 Subsidised enrolment – Undergraduate total 16 861 16 149 15 314 14 806 15 063 257 (2%) -494 Subsidised enrolment – Undergraduate total/Staff full-time equivalents (FTEs) 53,526984 50,308411 46,689024 39 34,811414 -4 (-11%) -5 Enrolment in Continuing Education Programmes 6 041 6 122 6 547 6 604 7 232 628 (10%) 286 CBE overall undergraduate enrolment 22 902 22 271 21 861 21 410 22 295 885 (4%) -208 CBE overall under- and postgraduate enrolment 25 778 25 199 24 717 24 244 25 437 1 193 (5%) -164 Student Profile % of first years with an APS ≥ 35 (without Life Orientation) 16% 16% 15% 15% 22% 7% 1% % of first years from Quintile 1 and 2 schools (under-resourced) 23% 25% 27% 28% 28% 0% 1% % of first years from Quintile 5 schools (well-resourced) 38% 35% 34% 34% 36% 2% -1% # NSFAS bursary holders 2 089 4 588 4 600 5 473 5 890 417 (8%) 849 % NSFAS bursary holders 12% 28% 30% 37% 39% 2% 6% Student Progress UG module success rates 85% 85% 85% 85% 90% 5% 1% UG dropout rate by end Year 1 (2020 Target = 11,5%) 15% 13% 12% 12% 12% 0% -1% Graduate output – Diplomas and degrees 3 910 3 865 4 030 3 991 4 187 196 (5%) 68 Graduate output – PG diplomas, honours, master’s and doctorate 1 386 1 386 1 357 1 370 1 301 -69 (-5%) -19 Graduate output – Total 5 296 5 251 5 387 5 546 5 488 -58 (-1%) 68 Undergraduate graduation rate (%) 21% 22% 24% 25% 27% 3% 0 Total graduation rate (%) 22% 26% 27% 28% 31% 3% 0
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 20 UJ Strategic Objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Progress 2020 to 2021 Year- on-year trend since 2017 % Advanced Diploma students graduating in minimum time 48% 59% 59% 63% 63% 64% 0 % Mainstream students completing 3-year qualifications in minimum time 38% 33% 39% 36% 40% 4% 0 % Mainstream degree students completing 3-year qualifications in minimum time 41% 34% 41% 38% 42% 4% 0 # Senior tutors, tutors and mentors 245 273 340 424 430 6 (1%) 52 SO6 (Fitness for global excellence and stature) Student enrolment full-time equivalents (FTEs) 14 816 14 331 13 872 13 810 14 029 219 (2%) -210 Staff full-time equivalents (FTEs) 315 321 328 334 403 69 (21%) 19 Student FTEs/Staff FTEs (Ideal = 1:28) 47.04 44.64 42.29 41.35 34.81 -6.54 -3 Student FTEs/ROUs (Ideal = 1:00) 0.90 0.89 1.34 1.36 1.51 0.15 0.17 % UG Student Satisfaction Rate 88% 89% 90% 96% 92% -4% 0 % PG Student Satisfaction Rate 81% 83% 85% 81% 86% 5% 0 Full-time and Fixed-term Staff members Academic staff members 324 344 361 364 361 -3 (-1%) 9 - Professors 29 27 28 34 41 7 (21%) 3 - Associate Professors 30 35 44 44 34 -10 (-23%) 2 - Black Professors and Associate Professors 5 6 8 11 19 8 (73%) 3 - Senior Lecturers 110 115 114 120 129 9 (8%) 4 - Lecturers 145 146 149 140 130 -10 (-7%) -4 - Assistant Lecturers 10 21 26 26 27 1 (4%) 4 Administrators 94 125 125 127 128 1 (1%) 7 Operations 51 52 43 41 40 -1 (-2%) -3 Staff talent profile % Women academics (2020 Target = 50%) 51% 50% 52% 50% 52% 2% 0% % Professoriate 18% 18% 20% 21% 21% -1% 1% % Women in the professoriate 5% 6% 8% 9% 15% 6% 2% % Academics (designated) 45% 46% 46% 46% 48% 2% 1% % Academics (non-designated) 42% 40% 38% 38% 36% -2% -1%
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 21 UJ Strategic Objective 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Progress 2020 to 2021 Year- on-year trend since 2017 % Academics (international) 11% 13% 16% 15% 17% 2% 1% # Academics with a doctorate (n) 98 114 121 139 149 10 (7%) 13 % Academics with a doctorate (%) 30% 33% 34% 38% 42% 4% 3% # Academics with a master’s 170 150 150 132 176 44 (33%) -1 % Academics with a master’s 52% 44% 42% 36% 49% 12% -1% # Academics who are CAs 66 66 66 67 70 3 (4%) 1 % Academics who are CAs (%) 20% 19% 18% 18% 19% 1% 0%
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 22 Teaching and Learning
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 23 Following on the experience of 2020, the CBE remained resilient in, and responsive to, a highly challenging teaching and learning environment. Teaching and Learning OVERVIEW The College’s teaching and learning portfolio is steered through the leadership of the Vice-Dean, Prof Sivan Chetty. Following on the experience of 2020, the CBE remained resilient in, and responsive to, a highly challenging teaching and learning environment. The surge in the Delta variant of the COVID-19 virus pushed the country into a fourth wave of the pandemic, resulting in stricter lockdown restrictions. The pandemic pervaded virtually every area of family, social and economic life, leaving a trail of hardship and despair. The instability created by the July 2021 riots simply added to the prevailing high levels of uncertainty, as those events laid bare the underlying vulnerabilities of the country. It was under these conditions that educational institutions endeavoured to maintain a stable academic environment. To this end, teaching, learning and assessment (TLA) at UJ continued to take place in an online, remote setting in 2021, as in 2020. Academic staff members remained both steadfast and innovative in ensuring a TLA environment that would enable a credible academic experience for students. With 15 063 undergraduate (UG) students enrolled for 537 modules in 49 programmes, a module success rate of 88,2% was achieved, above the institutional rate of 87,4%, and with close to 4 200 students expected to graduate. The decline in the UG module success rate from 2020 to 2021 may be deemed as a correction, given the unusually high rate experienced in the former year. When compared to 2019, the success rate increased by close to 3%. TEACHING AND LEARNING INNOVATIONS IN 2021 An innovative spirit continued to permeate the corridors of the CBE, with academic staff members exploring and/or introducing new approaches, content, and courses in the teaching and learning environment. Below are some of the key initiatives undertaken in 2021. Several initiatives are also planned for 2022, including those that are in progress from 2020. Prof Sivan Chetty Vice-Dean: Teaching and Learning College of Business and Economics
College of Business and Economics | Annual Report 2021 24 Ms W Mabuto Prof K Njenga Ms M Nevhutande Prof R Brink Ms M Carter Ms S Venter Prof A Ade-Ibijola Ms M Dube Dr H Kesa Ms L Nzama SCHOOL OF ACCOUNTING • A new course in 4IR and Digital Acumen for all BCom and BAcc students at third year. • A short course in 4IR (online SLPs) – Six already developed. • Student Personal Development Programme – Piloted in the Dept of Accountancy (Ms W Mabuto). • WorkSmart Rewards Programme (Ms W Mabuto). • A Toolkit for Self-Reflection after an Integrity Lapse – In development (Ms S Venter). • Gamification app adapted for FAC1 (Ms M Carter). • Multilingual glossaries for Auditing and Internal Control (Ms L Nzama, Ms M Nevhutande, and Ms M Dube). SCHOOL OF CONSUMER INTELLIGENCE AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS • Minecraft Education (Prof K Njenga). • Virtual learning environment (3D simulation of an in-person class) (Prof A Ade-Ibijola). • #UJ WIE Website (Prof R Brink). • Inter-faculty multidisciplinary project about Story Telling of Hope (Prof R Brink, Prof R Benecke and Mr E Hart). • Healthy Eating Routing Version 2 (Prof R Brink and Dr H Kesa). • SOIL Agricultural Project (Prof Brink, Dr C Leke and Waymark Infotech (PTY) Ltd). • UMdlalo Virtual Gaming Centre (Prof R Brink and Mr L Seseni). • #Enactus Online (Prof R Brink and Mr L Seseni) • Short courses on 4IR (Mr S Khumalo).www.uj.ac.za